WALLACE - Der Freiheit allein: Historischer Roman (German Edition)

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Ellsworth Huntington, in The Pulse of Asia , [] illustrates the geographic basis of history. The Columbia School of sociological historians, and others, interpret history partly in terms of the milieu: physical economic and geographic and social. Indeed, geography itself, i. Very recently, Rollin D. Its subject-matter is in process of formulation They show, in the first place, how the occupation of different groups of mankind depends on their geographical surroundings, and how these occupations in turn affect not only the material life, the houses, food, clothing, etc.

All these are classified, not according to race, which is often an accident, but according to those permanent influences by which all races are affected.

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Civilized mankind extricates itself gradually, like single man, from the immediately conditioning fetters of nature and of its place of abode. Gerland holds that man developed from and upon nature, on which he is very closely dependent and of which he is a small part, and that the higher he rises the more he frees himself from the compelling influence of the earth, which, however, he can never wholly escape. They are more at the mercy of their surroundings.

Distinguishing between the direct and the indirect effects of milieu, he argues in straight opposition that with progressing civilization we are increasingly dependent on environment, that the degree of such dependence has not lessened with advancement in civilization, and that only the manner of the relation has changed. The social evolution proceeds amidst the entire system of exterior conditions chemical, physical, astronomical , by which its rate of progress is determined.

Social phenomena can no more be understood apart from their environment than those of individual life. The point of view is no longer that of a Maine or a McLennan It is that of a spectator of human society as a whole And its immediate outcome has been to throw into the strongest possible relief the dependence of the form and, still more, of the actual content of all human societies on something which is not in the human mind at all, but is the infinite variety of that external Nature which Society exists to fend off from Man, and also to let Man dominate if he can.

More recently, Bentley, in a presidential address before the Royal Meteorological Society, London, considered the matter. Civilisation means the mastering of nature and the taming of man The great diversity of existent civilizations, declares Auguste Matteuzzi, is due to the diversity of the milieus where they developed. In order to discover why any civilization becomes more heterogeneous and more perfect, one must study the geographic milieu where it evolved. The organic and inorganic milieu of evolving ethnic groups constrains human societies to an incessant process of adaptation, and these societies in their turn react upon the milieu and modify it.

That civilization is a result of adaptation to environment, physical as well as political, is the view entertained by Bryce, Strachey, and Geikie. Similarly, there has been a natural tendency to attribute certain differences between northerners and southerners in the temperate zones to a difference in climate These national differences are proverbial between northern and southern Germans, French, Spanish, Russians, Italians, Arabs, and other peoples. The influence of climate has likewise been traced in the sad, even pessimistic tone of much of the northern literature, and in the gravity and melancholy of modern northern music, as well as of the older northern folk-songs Sir Archibald Geikie, in his Scottish Reminiscences , has emphasized the climatic influence in producing the grim character of the Scot Tacitus, in the 29th chapter of the Germania , assures us that the soil and climate of the land of the Mattiaci caused them to be more bellicose than their neighbors.

Sun and wind distil in him a terrible natural alcohol to whose influence every one born under this sky is subject. Some have only the mild fever which sets their speech and gesture free, redoubles their audacity, makes everything seem rosy-hued, and drives them on to boasting; others live in a blind delirium. And what Southerner has not felt the sudden giving way, the exhaustion of his whole being, that follows an outburst of rage or enthusiasm? The Boers in Africa have developed along lines different from those of the Dutch in the United States.

This second doctrine he elaborated in his Zur Lehre von den geographischen Provinzen , in It is to be expected, then, that excessive heat will have its effect upon the human mind. We might just as well ask the Ethiopian to change his skin as to change radically his social and religious ideas. It has been shown by experience that Christianity can make but little headway amongst many peoples in Africa or Asia, where on the other hand Muhammadanism has made and is steadily making progress, This is probably due to the fact that Muhammadanism is a religion evolved The maps are strikingly similar.

The relations between weather and conduct have frequently been investigated. Professor E. Dexter has made an 85 extended empirical study of the effects of the weather Bertillon has collected data on suicides and seasons in France, The nervous effects of the weather including cyclonic winds have also been noted.

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In England, 55 per cent of all such acts of violence during the ten years — happened in spring and summer, and in France during a period of forty years the average was the same. Ireland, indeed, shows a more even distribution of such crimes; but the tendency is seen even there. Cesare Lombroso, who is claimed to be the first to have essayed to portray the effect of physical environment on the human psyche, [] states in his Criminal Man , [] referring to Ferri and Holzendorf, 88 that with high temperature there is an increase in crimes of violence, while low temperature has the effect of increasing the number of crimes against property.

Lombroso, in his Crime, Its Causes and Remedies , [] citing the conclusions of the relevant statistical evidence, establishes that in England and France and Italy the crimes of rape and of murder occur in greatest number in the hottest months; that the maximum number of all rebellions in the whole world between and falls everywhere in the hottest month, while its minimum number comes in the coldest months; and that crimes against property markedly increase in the winter. Guerry has shown that crimes against persons are 90 twice as numerous in southern France 4.


Vice versa , crimes against property are more frequent in the north 4. It is probable that the food supply at hand in each region may be an important element in these variations, whilst the nature of the food and drink preferred there may itself be due in no small degree to climatic conditions The aboriginal of the tropics is distinctly a vegetarian, whilst the Eskimo within the arctic circle is practically wholly carnivorous. In each case the taste is almost certainly due to the necessities of their environment It is probable that the more northward man advanced the more carnivorous he became in order to support the rigours of the northern climate.

The same holds equally true in the case of drink All across Northern Europe and Asia there is a universal love of strong drink, which is not the mere outcome of vicious desires, but of climatic law This view derives additional support from the well-authenticated fact that one of the chief characteristics of the descendants of British settlers in Australia is their strong teetotalism.

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This cannot be set down to their having a higher moral standard than their ancestors, but rather, as in the case of Spaniards and Italians temperance 92 reformers point to the sobriety of the Spaniards, Italians, and other South Europeans , to the circumstance that they live in a country much warmer and drier than the British Isles. We must therefore, no matter how reluctantly, come to the conclusion that no attempt to eradicate this tendency to alcohol in these latitudes can be successful An historical sketch of the milieu idea is then taken up from the very beginnings to the nineteenth century.

The earlier notions of environmental influence are general and undifferentiated. The Hebrew Prophets see the hand of Providence in the harmony of national fate with the configuration of the globe. Hippocrates dwells upon the regularity of climatic effect on man. Aristotle notes the action of physical environment on government and national character. Eratosthenes, Strabo, and other Greek thinkers, relate man causally to surrounding nature.

Villani says that the fine air of Arezzo produces great minds. The study of milieu thus inaugurated in France by Bodin is set up as a French tradition by Lenglet du Fresnoy, Montesquieu, Turgot, Cuvier, and others, [] and has been continued by French writers to our day.

A number of philosophers in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries take up this idea. The doctrine of environment spreads to England and Germany. Herder, in turn, in addition to his other and principal contributions to the theory, affects it by giving a quickened impetus not only to the contemporary development thereof, but also to the later course of that development.

Hegel combats the notion that climate can be the be-all and end-all 95 of historical explanation; he implies that climate was held to be a vera causa. The nineteenth century brings differentiation carried out in human geography including history, in biology, in jurisprudence and economics, in anthropology, in sociology, in literature, and latterly in physics.

These disciplines determine our divisions for discussions shortly to follow the present one. The major portion of this study is then given over to following the milieu idea in some of the more important French, English, and German writers of the past century on what for want of a better name has been called anthropo-geography inclusive of certain aspects of history.

On the whole, their method has been the comparative method. Principles laid down a priori would be illustrated by typical cases selected mostly from the past. Or, the process would be reversed to an a posteriori reasoning: history restudied to find out its possible connections with the environment. Again: some would pick out a phase of the encompassing medium and follow out its effects in a particular country, while others would try to arrive at a more general conclusion. Delimited aspects of environment, relating again more to climate than any other phase of the milieu, were made the objects of observational or experimentally observational studies by Dexter, Brunhes, and Hellpach, the last two giving the most recent comprehensive summaries of our knowledge in this field.

And they are among the best we have.


The next part of this study will continue the survey of the history of this theory in the above mentioned sciences as well as in literature. Since the foregoing study was completed, E. He continues what Dexter began. Lack of definiteness in observation, argumentative conviction, reasoned out opinion, are superseded by scientific exactness in ascertaining the action of climate.

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Chapters 4—7 pp. Huntington subjects to statistical analysis the daily records of about factory operatives, pieceworkers, employed in three factories in three New England cities. The records, most of them for a complete year, are distributed over the four years from to p. He computes wage averages. He finds for each working day the average hourly wage for each group of operatives. When the daily averages had been found, they were averaged together by weeks. To give each individual an equal importance, the figures of each group have been reduced to percentages.


Finally, the different groups were combined p. His final computations are represented in curves. A curve, graduated in twelve parts one for each month , for a given year shows the earnings in percentages at any point and thus reveals the time of the weakness or efficiency of the worker; it shows the time of his 98 wages from least to most, thereby indicating the time of his work and energy from poorest to best. Huntington worked up similarly the records of 65 operatives in a North Carolina factory, of operatives in four cotton mills in South Carolina and Georgia, of 57 carpenters at Jacksonville, Fla.

On the first basis he also computed a series of data from a large factory at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, based on the work of about operatives in , of about in , of 69 in , of about in He figured the monthly or bi-weekly averages of hourly earnings of these pieceworkers in Pittsburgh. Discussing the curves in Figure 1 p. In the first place, it is evident that, although details may vary from year to year, the general course of events is uniformly from low in the winter to high in the fall with a drop of more or less magnitude in summer.

To what can this be due? The curves [in Figure 2, pp. With them I have repeated some of the curves of Figure 1 for the sake of comparison. The most remarkable feature of this series is that although there is great diversity of place and of activity, all the curves harmonize with what would be expected on the basis of Figure 1 [p.

Extremes seem to produce the same effect everywhere. From these data he compiles the curves in Figure 3 p. He says p. At Annapolis, just as at West Point, the time of best work is when the mean temperature is not far from forty degrees [Fahrenheit]. They all show that except in Florida neither the winter nor the summer is the most favorable season. Both physical and mental activity reach pronounced maxima in the spring and fall, with minima in midwinter and midsummer.

The consistency of our results is of great importance. Explaining the curves of Human Activity and Mean Temperature p. Even the two less reliable curves reach their maxima within the next four degrees. All the curves decline at low temperatures, It is important to note, however, that the variation in the optimum is slight compared with the variation in the mean temperature of the places in question. This is about ten degrees higher than the mean temperature for the year as a whole.

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